By Edwin H. Spanier
Meant to be used either as a textual content and a reference, this ebook is an exposition of the elemental principles of algebraic topology. the 1st 3rd of the e-book covers the basic staff, its definition and its program within the examine of masking areas. the focal point then turns to homology conception, together with cohomology, cup items, cohomology operations, and topological manifolds. the remainder 3rd of the e-book is dedicated to Homotropy idea, masking uncomplicated evidence approximately homotropy teams, purposes to obstruction concept, and computations of homotropy teams of spheres. within the later components, the most emphasis is at the program to geometry of the algebraic instruments built previous.
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Extra resources for Algebraic Topology '66
They are mostly composed of keratinocytes, and their outer root sheath (ORS) is contiguous with the epidermal basal layer. Once formed, hair follicles periodically undergo cycles of regression (catagen), rest (telogen), and growth (anagen), through which old hairs are eventually replaced by new ones (26–29). Ligand deprivation studies both in vitro (cell in cultures) and in vivo have indicated that the active retinoid derivatives [retinoic acids (RAs)] of vitamin A can play functions in growth, differentiation and maintenance of mammalian epidermis and hair follicles (30,31).
Vergara MN, Arsenijevic Y, Rio-Tsonis K. CNS regeneration: a morphogen’s tale. J Neurobiol 2005; 64(4):491–507. 149. Maden M. Retinoid signalling in the development of the central nervous system. Nat Rev Neurosci 2002; 3(11):843–853. 150. Clagett-Dame M, DeLuca HF. The role of vitamin A in mammalian reproduction and embryonic development. Annu Rev Nutr 2002; 22:347–381. 151. Collins SJ. The role of retinoids and retinoic acid receptors in normal hematopoiesis. Leukemia 2002; 16(10):1896–1905. 152.
11. Roos TC, Jugert FK, Merk HF, Bickers DR. Retinoid metabolism in the skin. Pharmacol Rev 1998; 50(2):315–333. 12. Blomhoff R, Blomhoff HK. Overview of retinoid metabolism and function. J Neurobiol 2006; 66(7):606–630. 13. Liebecq C. IUPAC-IUBMB Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (JCBN) and Nomenclature Committee of IUBMB (NC-IUBMB). Arch Biochem Biophys 1997; 344(1):242–252. 14. Sporn MB, Roberts AB. What is a retinoid? Ciba Found Symp 1985; 113:1–5. 15. Rigas JR, Dragnev KH. Emerging role of rexinoids in non-small cell lung cancer: focus on bexarotene.
Algebraic Topology '66 by Edwin H. Spanier