By Frederick W. Alt
Advances in Immunology, a original and hugely revered ebook, provides present advancements in addition to entire experiences in immunology. Articles handle the big variety of subject matters that include immunology, together with molecular and mobile activation mechanisms, phylogeny and molecular evolution, and scientific modalities. Edited and authored by means of the most important scientists within the box, each one quantity offers up to date info and instructions for destiny * Contributions from best gurus and specialists * Informs and updates on the entire most recent advancements within the box
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One potential avenue of intervention is provided by members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of liganddependent transcription factors that exert anti-inflammatory effects in many cell types. Here, we review recent studies providing insights into the distinct mechanisms that enable nuclear receptors to modulate immune responses, describe inflammatory components of neurodegenerative diseases, and discuss recent literature relevant to roles of nuclear receptors in influencing these processes. 1.
1. The CNS and ‘‘immune privilege’’ The central nervous system (CNS) was considered to be a site of ‘‘immune privilege’’ for a long time. This was based on experiments examining the ability to discriminate ‘‘non-self’’ by immune cells. Rat sarcoma cells were implanted into the brain parenchyma where the grafts grew very well, whereas grafts were immediately rejected when they were transferred under the skin or muscle (Shirai, 1921). Additional experiments showing that grafts were rejected when tumor cells were coimplanted together with recipient spleen containing many different immune cells further supported the concept that nonself cells were not recognized by the immune system in the CNS.
2005). , 2008). Recent studies suggest that communication between astrocytes and microglia may play important roles in amplification of inflammatory responses in the CNS (Sofroniew and Vinters, 2010). These responses can be negatively regulated in each cell type by nuclear receptor repression pathways that are discussed in further detail below in the context of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The full complement of nuclear receptors expressed in astrocytes remains to be determined. 4. 1. T cell As one of two immune cells that can recognize specific antigens, T cells are significantly involved in autoimmune diseases such as MS.
Advances in Immunology by Frederick W. Alt