By Susanne Klaus
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20 This conclusion goes against the current tide of apoptosis of white adipocytes. In vitro it is clear that human preadipocytes and adipocytes undergo apoptosis in response to serum deprivation or tumor necrosis factor-! 21,22 Tumor necrosis fator-! 2. Multiple stages of adipose cell differentiation. The scheme is based upon data obtained with 3T3-L1, 3T3-F442A, and Ob17 cells as well as with rodent adipose precursor cells. 27 Contrary to these observations, no apoptosis occurs in the epididymal white fat pad when mice previously exposed to cold are then transferred to warmth.
Part of the answer comes from evolution as, among invertebrates, adipose tissue represents an important organ in insects whereas its quantitative importance decreases in arachnids, crustaceans, and mollusks in which liver appears as a new organ. Among vertebrates, adipose tissue develops extensively in homeotherms, although its proportion of body weight can vary greatly between species (up to 40% of body weight in cetaceans) or within a species as it is the case in migrating birds and hibernating animals.
J Membr Biol 1984; 78(2):85-89. 28. Barbatelli G, Heinzelmann M, Ferrara P et al. Quantitative evaluations of gap junctions in old rat brown adipose tissue after cold acclimation: a freeze-fracture and ultra-structural study. Tissue Cell 1994; 26:667-676. 29. Cinti S. Morphological and functional aspects of brown adipose tissue. In: Giorgi PL, Suskind RM, Catassi C, eds. The Obese Child. Basel: Karger, 1992. 30. Morroni M, Barbatelli G, Zingaretti MC et al. Immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and morphometric evidence for brown adipose tissue recruitment due to cold acclimation in old rats.
Adipose Tissues by Susanne Klaus