By Daniel K. Lewis
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Additional info for A South American Frontier: The Tri-border Region (Arbitrary Borders)
Manuel Belgrano commanded an expedition to the Alto Paraná in 1811. The local militia forces, which had time to prepare their defenses, defeated the invaders twice. Although the government in Buenos Aires continued to assert its claim to the region, the victories of 1811 left Paraguay autonomous.
Jesuits and the Guaranís Spanish control and supervision. Although the Jesuits provided “donations” to political and military authorities in Asunción, they did not pay the taxes and duties that the Crown demanded from its private citizens. They did not even provide Spanish colonial officers with specific estimates of what their missions produced, what the missionaries sold, and to whom the missions marketed their goods. Because of their efforts, their skill, and, most important, thanks to their control of a large and compliant labor force that cost them little to develop and maintain, the Jesuits dominated the market for yerba mate from the 1630s onward.
The establishment of Spanish control over the rich and complex Andean communities that the Incas had organized gave Spain a base for its operations in South 23 24 A SOUTH AMERICAN FRONTIER: THE TRI-BORDER REGION America. García might have pressed to lead another exploration to the region, but a dispute with Guaraní allies led to his death in 1525. The Venetian explorer Sebastián Gaboto led a second expedition to the Río de la Plata region in 1526. Again, Spain had no desire to settle the area. Gaboto, better known as Sebastian Cabot, instead planned to map the region and to find a route through South America.
A South American Frontier: The Tri-border Region (Arbitrary Borders) by Daniel K. Lewis